Introduction To Public Key Cryptography Public key cryptography(also known as asymmetrical cryptography) is a type of cryptography that relies on a pair of cryptographic keys(i.e., private key and public key); this kind of cryptography is the opposed of the symmetrical cryptography where each actor must know the cryptography key before receiving or sending a message. Why It Is So Important? Asymmetrical cryptography is probably the most important kind of cryptography - at least in computer science - since it allows two parts who have never met each other before to safely exchange information over an insecure communication channel.